Syllabus for the Bachelor Degree

 1- Basic Subjects:

1.1 Biology:
1.1.1 Zoology:
• Introduction to biology.
• Relationship between zoology and veterinary sciences.
• Classification of animals and divisions of kingdoms.
• Comparison between prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Classification and characteristics of vertebrates.
• Characteristics of Mammals, Aves, Reptiles, Amoeba and fishes.
• Reproduction and nutrition of mammals.
• Morphological characteristics and comparative anatomy of vertebrates, avis, reptiles and amoeba.
1-1-2 Pastures and Environment:
• Pastures definitions, management, types of natural pastures. Classification of plants, morphology, growth, toxic and plants.
• Definition of ecosystem: physically, chemically, and biologically.
• Relationship between animal and environment, environmental dominance, effect of environmental changes and plant population growth.
• Anatomy of plants, collection and preservation of plants samples.
1.2 Physics:
• Dynamics, units and dimensions, heat, light, pressure, electromagnetism.
• Study on law of dynamics, lights, electrical conduction, magnetic field.
1.3 Chemistry and Introductory Biochemistry:
• Chemical equilibrium.
• Ionic equilibrium, types of solutions, pH, chemical bonds and chemical reactions.
• Organic chemistry.
• Qualitative and quantitative analysis, pH measurement, preparation of buffer solution, reactions of organic compounds.
1.4 Animal Husbandry:
• Different methods of classification and tagging of animals.
• Animal feeding and records using computing systems.
• Animal restrain, local breeds in Sudan, dentition, general characteristics of healthy animal, animal behavior, animal transportation, drug administration, hoof care and trimming.
• Animal approach and control, field visits.
1.5 Mathematics:
Algebra, functions, integration.
1.6 Basics of statistics:
Descriptive statistics, probabilities and statistical distribution.
Statistical problems.

2. Professional Basic Subjects:

2.1 Biochemistry I:
• Chemistry of biological compounds, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and hormones.
• Experiments of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids land enzymes.
2.2 Biochemistry II:
• Introduction to metabolism of biological compounds.
• Bioenergetics , enzymes of biological oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation , high energy phosphate compounds, energy electron transport chain
• Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acid metabolism.
• Separation techniques, chromatography, electrophoresis , estimation of some biological compounds.
2.3 Applied Biochemistry:
• Biochemistry of tissues, nutrients, and body fluids.
• Water and minerals metabolism, water distribution, role of minerals in metabolism and enzymatic catalysis.
• Biochemistry of urine milk, blood, cerebrospinal fluid and semen.
• Role of liver in metabolism.
• Neuromuscular system.
• Detection of urea and uric acid.
• Estimation of cholesterol, lipids, proteins, albumin, keratin.
• Estimation of phosphorus and magnesium , calcium.
• Milk biochemistry.
2.4 General Physiology I:
• Cell physiology
• Cardiovascular physiology.
• Hematology.
• Urinary system.
• Blood cells types and differentiation. Hematology and complete haemogram.
2.5 General physiology II:
• Autonomic nervous system.
• Muscle innervation and stimulation.
• Respiratory system.
• Acid base balance
• Thermoregulation.
• Environmental physiology.
• Endocrinology.
• Excitable tissues experiments.
2.6 Special physiology:
• Digestion in monogastrics and ruminants
• Reproduction physiology
• Milk production
• Growth physiology
• Avian physiology
Avian hematology, semen evaluation and microbial digestion.
2.7 Gross anatomy I:
• Osteology, arthorolgy, respiratory system, digestive system, cardiovascular system and lymphatic system.
Bony skeleton of domestic animals and animal dissection.
2.8 Gross Anatomy II:
• Reproductive and urinary systems.
• Nervous system and sensory organs.
• Endocrine system.
• Dermatology.
• Comparative anatomy of mammals.
• Avian anatomy.
• Reproductive, urinary, nervous systems.
• Sensory organs.
• Endocrine system.
2.9 Histology I:
• Techniques of histology.
• Cytology
• General histology: Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue and Muscular tissue.
• Microscopic study of the cell, Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue and Muscular tissue.
2.10 Histology II:
• Endocrine system.
• Digestive system.
• Urinary system.
• Reproductive system.
• Respiratory system Mammary glands Skin cardiovascular system and sensory organs.
• Microscopic study of the above mentioned systems.
2.11 Embryology:
• Endocrine system.
• Digestive system.
• Urinary system
• Reproductive system
• Respiratory system, Mammary glands, Skin, cardiovascular system and Sensory organs.
• Microscopic study of the above mentioned systems
1.10 Embryology:
• Reproductive system and gonads.
• Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis.
• Fertilization and early embryonic phases.
• Chick embryo development.
• Fetal membranes.
• Development of digestive tract, Endocrine glands, Respiratory system, Urinary system, reproductive system, Central nervous system, Skin, Fore limbs and Hinds limbs.
• General aspects of mammalian embryo.
• The practical of embryology had been studied in the embryology museum.
2.12 Genetics and Animal Breeding:
• Mendelian genetics
• Genetic make of the cells
• Cell division
• Sex determination Genetic make of the community.
• Migrations, mutation and selection the lethal genetic make up.

3. Para-Clinical Studies:

3.1 General Pathology:
• Terminology of the pathology
• Etiology of diseases
• Interaction between host and parasite.
• Disturbances of the cardiovascular system.
• Teratology, degeneration, necrosis inflammation and repair.
• Neoplasia
• Neuropathology.
• Histopathology
• Museum and abattoir rejected samples.
• Processing and staining of histopathological sections.
3.2 Systemic Pathology:
• Pathological changes that occur in different body locations
• Pathology of: Digestive system, cardiovascular system, Respiratory system, musculoskeletal system, Endocrine system, urogenital system and sensory organs.
• Pathology of bones land joints.
Study of museum samples and abattoir rejected samples showing gross lesion.
3.3 Morbid Anatomy:
• Macroscopic and microscopic lesion of viral , rickeuttsial, bacterial, mycopiasma, fungal and parasitic diseases as well as Iesions of poultry diseases.
3.4 Helminthology:
• Classification of parasites (helminthology):cestodes, nematodes and trematdoes.
• Parasitism.
• Life cycle of worms.
• Techniques of collection and classification of worm eggs and larval stages.
• Different orders in cestodes, nematodes and trematodes.
• Classification of different orders, detection of parasites in fecal sample and blood sample.
3.5 Protozoology and Entomology:
• Description of protozoan and arthropods orders (morphology and life cycle.)
• Protozoan transmission and role of vectors in transmission of parasites.
• I important protozoa and arthropods in mammals and birds.
• Identification of different orders of protozoa and arthropods.
• Preparation and staining of slides.
3.6 General Microbiology:
General: Bacteriology, Mycology, Virology and Immunology.
3.7 I. Immunology:
• Immune system and its cells.
• Chemistry of immunity
• Immune system components: cells, Antigens, Major Histocmpatability Complex, Antibodies.
• Immune response types of hypersensitivity.
• Tissue damage and repair.
• Immuntolerance.
• Autoimmunity.
• Immunological methods.
• Immunity against Bacteria, Viruses and parasites.
• Immunological diseases.
• Immunity and neoplasm.
• Blood immunity.
• Tissue implantation.
• Vaccines production.
• Different Immunological methods: Immunofluorescence, ELISA,Immunodiffusion,Isotopes,Precipitation, Agglutination, CFT Electrophoresis.. etc.
• Serological studies and measurement of cellular immunity.
3.6.2 Virology:
• General Virology: chemical and geometrical structure of viruses, morphology of Viruses, classification and abnormalities, prions, propagayion in host cells and isolation.
• Introduction to molecular biolgy andgeneticengineering.
• Viral genetic
• RNA viruses (Orthiomyxoviruses pramyxoveuses, Coroaviuses, picornaviruses, flaviviruses, Rotaviruses Burnaviruses, Togaviruses,Retroviruses... etc)
• DNA viruses ( poxviruses, Herpesviruses, Adenoviruses...etc)
• IIIustration of viruses by using multimedia piojectors.
• Cell culture methods of virus isolation in tissue culture and embrocated chicken egg.
3.6.3 Bacteriology and Mycology:
• Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Enterobactereacae (Brucella, pseudomonas, Bordetella, Mycobacterium...etc), Clostridia... etc.
• Biochemical tests for bacteria identification and defferntation.
• Classification of Fungi: cutaneous, subcutaneous and systemic. Fungi.
• Fungal diseases and pathogenesis,
• Culture inoculation of labpratory animals, serological tests and preservation of cultured pathogenic fungi.
• Study of different Genera of Fungi.
Microscopic investigation and cultural characteristics for pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
3.7 Basics of Animal Nutrition:
• Classification of Animal feed.
• Evaluation of feed stuff.
• Basics of feed manufacturing.
• Methods of protein and energy evaluation.
3.8 Applied Animal Nutrition:
• Preparation and preservation of animal feed.
• Nutritional measures.
• Nutritional needs for animal farms and poultry for maintenance and production.
• Methods for calculation of balanced concentrates and feed additives.
• Introduction to therapeutical nutrition.

4. Clinical Sciences:

4.1 Medicine and Therapeutics I:
• Introduction to veterinary medicine.
• Diagnostics methods: case history, clinical signs, physical examination, tentative diagnosis ... ect.
• Malnutrition diseases: vitamins deficiency mineral and trace elements deficiency diseases, proteins and carbohydrates deficiency diseases and Emaciation.
• Metabolic diseases: milk fever, ketosis, pregnancy toxemia, hypomagnesaemia, azoturea, post - partum hemoglobin urea.
• Muscular diseases: myositis and muscular weakness, bone diseases, arthritis - systematic diseases, toxemia, pain and local Injures.
• Clinical examination - Restrain of animals - visual examination - palpation - percussion - auscultation - examination of mucous membranes - assessment of temperature, pulse rate, heart rate.
• Methods of sample collection and prescription of medication.
4.2 Medicine and Therapeutics II:
• Cardiovascular system diseases.
• Hereditary and Acquired nervous diseases.
• Mastitis.
• Ophthalmic disease.
• Camel diseases.
• Therapeutics.
• Collection of Blood samples, Electrocardiography, collection of milk samples.
4.3 Medicine and Therapeutics III:
• Diseases of digestive system and its therapeutics.
• Diseases of respiratory system: respiratory disorders, diseases of upper respiratory tract, iung diseases, pleura and diaphragm diseases and respiratory system therapeutics.
• Use of stomach tube, mouth gauge, laryngoscope, clinical examination and follow up of patient.
4.4 Medicine and Therapeutics IV:
• Urinary System diseases: infections of kidney, urinary
bladder and renal pelvis renal stones and therapeutics of
renal stones and therapeutics renal diseases.
• Skin diseases: hypersensitivity, dermatitis and skin
Tumors, microbial and parasitic diseases.
• Liver diseases: liver disorders, dysfunction and therapeutics.
• Therapeutics of systemic diseases.
• Medication and follow - up of patients at Faculty Teaching Veterinary Hospital.
4.5.1 Pharmacology I :
• Pharmacokinetics
• Drugs.
4.5.2 Pharmacology II:
• Systematic pharmacology.
• Therapy of infections.
• Antibiotics, vaccines, Insecticides, disinfectants and
Drug prescription.
• Sudan pharmacopoeia.
• Drug ingredients and recombination, scientific and chemical names of drugs, therapeutic doses, experiments for demonstration of some drugs action.
4.6 Laboratory Diagnosis:
• Collection of clinical specimens.
• Preparation and preservation of samples.
• Vital body organs function's tests.
• Detection of bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in tissue samples and blood.
• Collection of samples from diseased animals.
Microscopic and chemical tests of urine blood, milk and fecal samples to confirm the tentative diagnosis .
• Serological tests, culture of causative agent, Biopsy.
4.7 Toxicology and Forensic Medicine:
• Classification of Toxic materials.
• Metabolism and functions of Toxins.
• Diagnosis and medication of poisoning diseases.
• Minerals poisoning, Drugs poisoning, Venoms, Isotopes, pesticides and poisoning.
• Fungal and plants toxins.
7.4.2 Forensic Medicine:
• Duty.
• Inspection of dead animal, signs of death chemical inspection of hair, blood and fibers.
• Shots injuries and meat inspection.
• Forensic reports.
• Inspection of poisoned animal (arsine toxicity, insecticide or herbicide).
• Identification of animal skeletal Bone (parts), identification of hair and fibers.
4.8 Epidemiology and Introductory Veterinary Public Health:
• Diseases of Animal population.
• Geographical distribution of animal diseases.
• Host, causative agent and environment characteristic in epidemiological studies.
• Diseases surveillances, epidemiological questionnaires, data analysis, epidemiological economics and role veterinarian in community applied biostatics.
• Rules of Animal health.
• Field visits and analysis of epidemiological data.
4.9 Infections and Zoonotic Diseases:
• Study of epidemiology and control of contagious Diseases.
• Parasitic Diseases: pathological and economical impact geographical and environmental distribution of Helminthes, control of insects and ticks.
• Obstacles of parasitic vaccine production.
• Bacterial and Fungal Diseases: Sources and transmission, internal & external predisposing factors, disease survey and control.
• Viral and rickettsial diseases.
• Important animal diseases in Sudan and neighboring countries.
• Local, regional and international vaccination programs.
• Zoonotic diseases: Transmission, impact and control.
• Field visits (farms, Vet, hospitals), medical reports, training on vaccination confirmatory laboratory tests of suspected cases.
4.10 Poultry Diseases:
• Sero - surveillance for poultry diseases.
• Transmission of viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases.
• Hygienic requirements in poultry farms.
• Diseases of turkey, pigeons, ducks and rabbits.
• Identification of different lesions by postmortem, isolation of causative agent and serological test.
• Poultry vaccines production.
• Scientific visits to poultry farms.
4.11 Food Hygiene and safety:
• Principals of public health.
• Correlation between human, animal health and environment.
• Animal products safety.
• Medical and comparative research.
• Participation in emergence and health meetings.
• Community extension.
• Milk hygiene and milk transmitted diseases.
• Food and meat hygiene.
• Diary farm and milk industries visits mainly point in food contamination and . meat inspection practical( antemortem, post mortem and elimination of felts).
4.12 General Surgery and Anesthesiology:
• Preparation of surgical instruments and operation theatre.
• Surgical stitches and materials.
• Principals of anesthesiology, pre medication, paranteral monitoring of anesthesia and emergencies of anesthesia.
• Surgical instrumentation.
• Preparation of surgeon, animal and operation room.
• Surgical stitches and induction of anesthesia.
4.13 Special Surgery I:
• Injuries and inflammations
• Surgical approaches (abscess fistula, gangrene, cysts, blood and lymph vessels, skin haematoma, ulcers and tumors).
• Special approaches and injuries of head, neck, chest, back, abdomen, gonads, udder and teats.
• Ophthalmic surgery.
• Laparatomy, turbinates surgery , tracheostomy esophagostomy, castration, hernia, eye surgery, exploratory laparotomy, cesarean section, tooth extraction & repulsion.
4.14 Special Surgery II:
• Orthopedics
• Lameness. Xray, physical application for treatment of bones injuries, injuries of ligaments, tendons, bursa, joints and fraction.
• Equine lameness, bovine lameness and camel lameness.
• Xray applications, costs applications, diagnosis of lameness (surgical and physical approaches and trimming of hoof).
4.15 Reproduction and Gynecology:
• Natural synchronizations of the estrous cycle.
• Pregnancy diagnosis and pregnancy problems (fetal death, abortion, fetal deformities ...etc).
• Abnormalities in pregnancy.
• Sexual transmitted disease (STD).
• Field training on estrus detection and pregnancy diagnosis.
4.16: Obstetric and Infertility Problems:
• Natural delivery
• Pre and postpartum care.
• New born care
• Injuries during delivery and post partum.
• Training on obstetrics in animals, clinical and surgical approaches and new born care.
4.17 Reproductive Biotechnologies:
• Obstetrics and fertility problems in domestic animals (male and female)
• Artificial synchronization of estrous cycle
• Artificial insemination.
• Embryo transfer
• Collection of oocytes and semen preservation and artificial insemination techniques.
4.18: Fish Diseases:
• Fish characteristics.
• Fish biology, fish culture and fish culturing obstacles (predators, bacterial diseases, viral diseases, fungal diseases and fish parasites).
• Postmortem changes.
• Fish diseases control.
• Field visits to fish culture farms.
• Detection of fish diseases and causative agents.
4.19 Wildlife Diseases:
• Classification of wild animals and wild animals' distribution in Sudan.
• Wild animals' diseases: bacterial, viral, parasitic and nutritional diseases.
• Roles of wild animals in diseases transmission.
• Control of wild animals diseases.
• Field visits for different wild animals' territory. Restrain of wild animals for sample collection.
4.20 Veterinary Extension and Rural Development:
• Relation between extension field and research.
• Communication channels in nomads community.
• Preparation of extension programs.
• Extension in animal health, production and maintenance of pasture.
• Marketing of animal products.
• Training on different extensional methods.
4.21 Livestock Economics:
• Introduction to economy.
• Theory of prices, demands, orders, consumption, marketing and competition.
• Role of animal resources in national economy.
• Type's monopoly, economy of meat, animal products and waste.
4.22 Dairy Production:
• Milk production in Sudan.
• Types of dairy farms in Sudan.
• Breeds of dairy cattle, selection of diary animals.
• Factors dffecting dairy production.
• Development of diary industry in the world.
• Production of hygienic milk.
• Field visits for different dairy farms.
• Physical and chemical test of milk.
• Demonstration of dairy production(sterilization, pasteuralization and industry).
4.23 Poultry Industry:
• Poultry industry in tropical regions.
• Egg production.
• Food conversion efficiency.
• Layer breeds.
• Systems of poultry farms.
• Broiler Industry: broiler, breeds, methods of broiler production and slaughtering.
• Technical feasibility of poultry production.
Training on poultry feeding and field visits different systems of poultry production..
4.24 Meat Production:
• General features of the animals for meat production.
• Factors affecting meat industry.
• Meat production systems.
• Fattening evaluation of live animal and anti mortem care.
• Meat technologies.
• Post mortem changes.
• Meat quality preservation.
• Field visits for different fattening farms.